DESCRIPTION: The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made French domination master the "first colonial empire", that existed untilby which time most of it had French domination master lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in The second empire came to an end after the loss in the bitter wars of Vietnam and Algeriaand relatively peaceful decolonizations elsewhere afterNECHO II: Are you from Russia? I know russian words like Privet, da, net.vodka and then. other not good words. and loudly :(
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APPENDIX. the person so ofi'ending, and the master of the slave, should pay each a fine of three hundred livres. Should said issue he the result of the concubinage of the master with his slave, said master shall not only pay the fine, but be deprived of the slave and of the children, who shall be adjudged to the hospital. May 27 Leonardo's most important patron, Ludovico Sforza, dies in France after being imprisoned for ten years in the chateau of Loches in Touraine. ]uly to April December 16 and 18 He records that the invading Swiss soldiers have set fires in Milan (B ; V ), marking an end to French domination of the city. 11 Sep For Grenoble, however, the school decided its two- year Master in International Business degree was more suited to the international ranking. Its decision paid off. With 91 per cent of students from outside France, the school scored highly on the international mobility section of the ranking and so ranked in.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "first colonial empire", that existed untilby which time most of it had been lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in The second empire came to an end after the loss in the bitter wars of Vietnam and Algeriaand relatively peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after A series of wars with Great Britain and other European major powers during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in France losing nearly all of French domination master conquests.
France rebuilt a new French domination master mostly afterconcentrating chiefly in Africa as well as Indochina and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first French domination master to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language and the Catholic religion.
It also provided manpower in the World Wars. It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history. Historian Tony Chafer argues: Newer remnants of the colonial empire were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories within the French Republic.
By the s, says
French domination master Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French. During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began.
Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. A few years later, inSamuel French domination master Champlain founded Quebecwhich was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France also called Canada.
New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections.
These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism. Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent.
Areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Prior to the establishment of the Sovereign Councilthe territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies.
It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. French domination master itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in Back in France there was relatively little interest in colonialism, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of its history, New France was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development.
InFrench territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakeswas maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centred in the Illinois Country and present-day Arkansas. As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies.
Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began inand a French domination master was founded on Saint Kitts in the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht inwhen it was ceded outright.
The food-producing plantations of these colonies were and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean.
The eastern half of Hispaniola today's Dominican Republic also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in Inthe East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east.
During the First World War, after France had suffered heavy casualties on the Western Front, they began to recruit soldiers from their African French domination master. ByFrance had recruitedAfrican soldiers. African soldiers had success in the Battle of Verdun and failure in the Nivelle Offensivebut in general regardless of their usefulness, French generals did not think highly of their African troops. After the First World War, France's African war aims were not being decided by her cabinet or the official mind of the colonial ministry, but rather the leaders of the colonial movement in French Africa.
The first occasion of this was in —, when Francois Georges-Picot both a diplomat and part of a colonial dynasty met with the British to discuss the division of Cameroon. What resulted was Britain giving nine tenths of Cameroon to the French. Picot emphasized the demands of the French colonists over the French cabinet.
This policy of French colonial leaders determining France's African war aims can be seen throughout much of France's empire. In the middle of French domination master 18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britainwhich ultimately resulted in the destruction of most of the first French colonial empire and the near complete expulsion of France from the Americas.
It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. This cyclic conflict is known as the Second Hundred Years' War. While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost — most of New France was taken by Britain also referred to
French domination master British North Americaexcept Louisiana, which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida.
Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant French domination master France, and immoral. Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolutionwith Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris inbut not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention.
True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in when Saint Domingue the Western third of the Caribbean island of HispaniolaFrance's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint L'Ouverture and then, following his capture by the French inby Jean-Jacques Dessalinesheld their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Empire of Haiti in Haiti became the first black republic in the world, followed by Liberia in About 80, Haitians died in the —03 campaign alone.
Of the 55, French soldiers dispatched to Haiti in —03, 45, including 18 generals, had died, along with 10, sailors, the great majority French domination master disease.
In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Treaty of Amiens inbut when war resumed inthe British soon recaptured them. France's repurchase of Louisiana in came to nothing, as the success of the Haitian Revolution convinced Napoleon that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in The French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in — was not successful.
The beginnings of the second French colonial empire were laid in with the French invasion of Algeriawhich was conquered over the next 17 years. One authority countsAlgerian victims of the French conquest. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas Empire; he established French rule in New Caledoniaand Cochinchinaestablished a protectorate in Cambodia ; and colonized parts of Africa.
He joined Britain sending an army to China during Second Opium War and the Taiping Rebellionbut French ventures to establish influence in Japan and Korea were less successful. His attempt to impose a European monarch, Maximilian I of Mexico on the Mexicans ended in a spectacular failure in To restore the Mexican Republic, 31, Mexicans died violently, including over 11, executed by firing squads, 8, were seriously wounded and 33, endured captivity in prisoner of war camps.
Those Mexicans who fought for the monarchy sacrificed 5, of their number killed in combat, 2, badly wounded, and 4, taken prisoner. The French suffered 1, battle deaths, including French domination master died of wounds, 2, wounded, and 4, dead from disease.
A key part of the enterprise was the modernization of the French French domination master he began the construction of fifteen powerful new battle cruisers powered by steam and driven by propellers; and a fleet of steam powered troop transports. The French Navy became the French domination master most powerful in French domination master world, after Britain's. He also created a new force of colonial troops, including elite units of naval infantry, Zouavesthe Chasseurs d'Afrique, and Algerian sharpshooters, and he expanded the Foreign Legion, which had been founded in and won fame in the Crimea, Italy and Mexico.
By the end of Napoleon III's reign the French
French domination master territories had tripled in area; in they covered a million square kilometers, with more than five million inhabitants. A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years, but New Caledonia became a penal colony and, from the s until the end of the transportations inabout 22, criminals and political prisoners were sent New Caledonia to be killed.
At the beginning of Napoleon III's reign, the presence of France in Senegal was limited to a trading post on the island of Goreea narrow strip on the coast, the town of Saint-Louisand a handful of trading posts in the interior.
The economy had largely been based on the slave tradecarried out by the rulers of the small kingdoms of the until France abolished slavery in its colonies in InNapoleon III named an enterprising French officer, Louis Faidherbeto govern and expand the colony, and to give it the beginning of a modern economy.
Faidherbe built a series of forts along the Senegal River, formed alliances French domination master leaders in the interior, and sent expeditions against those who resisted French rule. He built a new port at Dakarestablished and protected telegraph lines and roads, followed these with a rail line between Dakar and Saint-Louis and another into the interior. He built schools, bridges, and systems to supply fresh water to the towns.
He also introduced the large-scale cultivation of Bambara groundnuts and peanuts as a commercial crop. Reaching into the Niger valley, Senegal became the primary French base in West Africa and a model colony. Dakar became one of the most important cities of the French Empire and of Africa. Inafter the murder of a French priest and the arrest by the Chinese police of the crew of a British merchant ship, Napoleon III joined together French domination master Great Britain to form a military expedition to punish the Chinese government.
The object of his policy was not to take territory, but to assure that the vast and lucrative Chinese market was open to French commerce, and not the exclusive trading partner of Britain.
In January a combined British and French fleet bombarded and occupied Cantonand landed troops at the mouth of the Hai River in northern China. This treaty opened six additional Chinese ports to European merchant ships, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of opium into China. The Chinese government was reluctant to observe the treaty, so Napoleon III and the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston decided to take more forceful action, in what became known in history as the second phase of the Second Opium War.
A joint French-British expeditionary force of 8, men was created under a French general, Charles Cousin-Montaubanwho had commanded French forces in Algeria. At the beginning of the French-British fleet sailed from Europe, and in the spring of landed the army in China.
The Anglo-French army force, led by Cousin-Montauban, captured Tientsin, and then marched on the capital. On 21 September it defeated the army of the Chinese emperor at the Battle of Palikao and seized the capital Beijing. On 25 Octoberthe Chinese Emperor was obliged to accept a second treaty of Tientsin, opening an additional eleven new ports to European trade, making westerners immune to prosecution by Chinese courts, and establishing western diplomatic missions in Beijing.
Some of the art objects taken from the looted Summer Palace were carried to France, where the Empress used them to decorate a Chinese-themed
French domination master at the Palace of Fontainebleauwhere they can be seen today. InFrench diplomats in China learned that French priests had been arrested and executed in Koreaa country which had had no diplomatic or commercial contact with Europe or America.
Twelve Catholic priests at the time were living in Korea, with an estimated 23, Korean converts, belonging to churches founded by French missionaries in the 18th century. In JanuaryKing Gojong and his father, the French domination master, ordered the execution of most of the French priests, and ten thousand converts. A squadron of French ships, carrying eight hundred naval infantry, attempted retaliation but made little headway. In Japan the Meiji Emperor, and his enemies, the Tokugawa shogunateboth sought French military training and technology in their battle for power, known as the Boshin War.
The European representative of the Shogunate, Shibata Takenakaapproached both Britain and France, asking assistance to build a modern shipyard and to train the Shogunate army in modern western warfare.
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